Hilchot Shabbat: Havdala

13 01 2012

Based on a Naaleh.com shiur by Rabbi Shimon Isaacson

There is a disagreement among the Rishonim whether havdalah is d’orayta or d’rabbanan. The majority of Rishonim rule that it is d’orayta. Are woman obligated in havdalah? Is havdalah a mitzvah of Shabbat or of motzai Shabbat?

Since women are obligated in the negative commandments of shamor, they are also obligated in the positive commandments of zachor. According to the Rambam, havdalah is part of the mitzvah of Kiddush and women are obligated. According to the Orchot Chaim, women are only obligated in kiddush. Havdalah is a time bound mitzvah of motzai Shabbat from which woman are exempt. Based on this, the Rama rules that women should not make Havdalah for themselves.

Some Rishonim argue that although havdalah is d’rabbanan, women are still obligated because it was meant by the sages to be a part of the mitzvah of kiddush. The Mishna Berura cites the Bach who asks, if the Orchot Chaim is correct and woman aren’t obligated why can’t they make Havdalah anyway? In fact the Magen Avraham and the Bach rule that women can make havdalah. How then do we understand the Rama?

With havdalah there’s no maaseh (action). The blessing itself is the mitzvah. Therefore the Rama rules that women shouldn’t say it. Preferably, a man should intend to recite it for a woman when he says havdala for himself. The man should not say havdalah earlier because if in fact a woman isn’t obligated, he may be reciting it in vain. In principle, a woman is obligated and therefore if there’s no man the woman should say it herself.

The Biur Halacha questions whether a woman should say the blessing of Bori meorei haish since it is essentially a mitzvah of motzai Shabbat which women aren’t obligated in. Therefore, it may be an interruption between Borei Pri Hagefen and Havdalah. The common practice is that women do say Borei meorei haish.

There’s a Kabbalisticsource that mentions that women shouldn’t drink the wine of havdalah. Rav Meltzer explains that Borei meorei ha’aish may qualify as an interruption before Borei pri hagefen. Therefore, a woman shouldn’t drink the wine. However, the custom is that if she makes Havdalah for herself, she does drink from it.

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Hilchot Shabbat: Final Halachot of Havdala class #17

22 11 2011
Based on a Naaleh.com shiur by Rabbi Shimon Isaacson 

Community Kiddush #9 Havdala is recited twice, the first time in Maariv with the blessing of Ata Chonantanu and again over a cup of wine.

Why do we say Havdala in the blessing of Atah Chonen? The Yerushalmi in Brachot says, “Im ein da’at havdala minayin.” Without intellect, it is impossible to distinguish between different things. To make Havdala, one needs a measure of intellect. On Shabbat we are focused solely on spirituality. We don’t ask for any physical needs. Havdala serves as a sanction to begin working again. Therefore, Ata Chonantanu is inserted before the first supplication of mercy in order to allow us to engage in further requests.

If you forget Ata Chonantanu, you don’t have to recite it again, if you will be reciting Havdala over wine. If you didn’t say either of them, you must recite the prayer in Shachrit. The Mishna Berura cites the Magen Avraham that the makeup prayer would be the second prayer. Rav Akiva Eiger disagrees. Ata Chonantanu should be inserted in the first prayer because one needs its sanction to engage in further supplications.

One should not eat, drink, or do work before Havdala. If you are in the middle of a bread meal that you started before the end of Shabbat you can continue eating without reciting Havdala, but if it is just a fruit or cake meal, you must stop before bein hashmoshot, thirty minutes before the stars appear. Once Shabbat ends, one should say ‘Baruch hamavdil bein kodesh l’chol’ and then work is permitted. Women who generally don’t daven Maariv should be careful to say this. Why can’t we eat or do work before Havdala? On some level it’s still Shabbat, until it is formally concluded. In addition, Chazal wanted to be sure we wouldn’t forget to make Havdala.

The cup for Havdala must not be pagum (flawed). It is filled until the wine overflows, showing our confidence in Hashem’s beneficence.

The Mishna Berura mentions that women shouldn’t drink the wine because it is possible that they are not obligated in the blessing over the flame and there’s a hefsek (break) between Hagafen and the drinking.

Many poskim maintain that one cannot fulfill Havdalah over the phone. Rav Moshe ruled that where there is no choice, it is permitted.

We smell sweet smelling spices to give us a lift after losing our neshama yeteirah, (extra soul). According to the Mishna Berura, one should not make a blessing on the spices if one can’t smell.

One should use an avuka, a candle with multiple wicks for the blessing on the flame. Most poskim do not consider electricity to be aish (fire), but some rule that an incandescent bulb does fall under this category.

There is a custom to escort the Shabbat out with a bread meal, called Melave Malka. One should eat as soon after Shabbat as possible so that it’s noticeable that it’s not just a regular meal. If one is very full then one should at least eat fruit or mezonot. Our sages tell us that the luz bone is nourished with the food of Melave Malka. The resurrection of the dead will begin from this bone. Melave Malka highlights the sanctity of Shabbat. Shabbat is not just a one day affair. It’s a reservoir of holiness that flows over into the coming week.





Shabbat Scenarios: Fit To Be Tied – More Applications of the Melacha of Koshair #3

23 05 2011

Based on a Naaleh.com shiur by Rabbi Shimon Isaacson 

Shabbat Scenarios: Fit To Be Tied - More Applications of the Melacha of Koshair #3

Can you tie a knot on a Torah belt (gelilah) on Shabbat?

Today most shuls have clips or pre-tied belts, but the question may still come up. On Shabbat morning the knot is by definition temporary, as the Torah will be taken out again later in the day during Mincha. However, after Mincha the Torah will not be read again until Monday morning, thirty six hours later. According to the Rambam and the Rif it is still considered an ordinary temporary knot and it is permitted. According to Rashi, it is a quasi-permanent knot. There is a machloket if a quasi-permanent knot is a knot that is meant to last for more than a day or more than seven days. Therefore, the Mishna Berura advises against tying a knot meant to stay more than a day. However, in cases of need, there is room for leniency.

The Shulchan Aruch writes, based on the Rambam and the Rif, that tying a temporary knot for a mitzva is permitted. However, if the Torah will not be used again for more than six months, one should not tie such a knot on Shabbat.

 

Adjusting a necktie

Making a Half Windsor slip knot in a tie is permitted.  A Double Windsor knot could pose a problem as it is considered a more professional type of knot. There may be room for leniency based on a comment of Sharei Teshuva that discusses belts. A double knot on a raincoat belt is permitted because it is a loose, ordinary, temporary knot that is undone regularly. Both a belt and a tie are made of thick material which is usually tied loosely. However, tying a tight double knot on a women’s thin dress belt should be avoided.

Is it permitted to make a tight double knot on Shabbat with the intent to untie it that day?

Can you tie tzizit knots on Shabbat with the intent to untie it immediately after Shabbat?      According to the Pri Megadim, it is permitted as the knot is temporary. However, the Mishna Berura disagrees. Normally, people do not undo tzizit or tefillin knots.  If the nature of the knot is permanent, then an individual’s intent cannot nullify the intent of the masses. Therefore, such permanent kinds of knots should not be made on Shabbat even if they will be untied that day.

Twist-ties

The Rambam writes that twisting twine together to make a thick rope is a derivative (tolda) of Koshair and is Biblically prohibited. Are twist-ties analogous to this? Rav Auerbach and Rav Elyashiv rule that it is prohibited, certainly if one does not intend to untie it. Other poskim disagree and permit it. In general one should avoid using twist-ties on Shabbat. However twisting the tie once is permitted.





Dosh/Sechita Demonstration Part II

6 04 2011

Based on a Naaleh.com shiur by Rabbi Shimon Isaacson

Shabbat Scenarios: Dosh/Sechita DemonstrationsThe Torah prohibition of Dosh traces back to the times of the Mishkan when wheat kernels were separated from their external shells by threshing. The most common toldah (derivative) of Dosh is Sechita or Mefarek – extracting a liquid from a solid.

·         Can you milk a cow on Shabbat? This appears to be a classic case of sechita, squeezing the cow’s udder, a solid, so that milk can flow out. The Gemara limits sechita to gedulei karka (vegetation, which grew from the ground). However, the accepted view is that milking is prohibited on Shabbat, since a cow is sustained by vegetation. The son of the Rambam adds that the condition of gedulei karka only applies to the av melacha as it was done in the Mishkan, and not to the toldah of sechita.

·         Similarly, the view of the Magid Mishna is that extracting blood from humans who are also sustained by vegetation is prohibited. Therefore, blood transfusions should not be done on Shabbat, except when a person’s life is in danger.

·         Squeezing a liquid directly on to a solid so that the juice is completely absorbed into the food is permitted. Therefore, you can squeeze a lemon onto a slice of fish on Shabbat. Dousing the fish with copious amounts of juice so that the excess liquid pools around the plate is prohibited. The Gemara gives an example of milking a cow directly into a pail of oats which will be fed to animals. If the cow gives such an abundance of milk that the oats can no longer absorb it, it is prohibited.

·         Extracting liquid from grapes and olives, which were offered as libations in the Temple, is prohibited mi’doraita.

·         The Rabbis prohibited squeezing fruits that are commonly juiced such as strawberries and pomegranates.

·         Sucking the juice out of a fruit directly into your mouth is generally permitted. The exceptions are grapes and olives, which

are   prohibited mi’doraita. Although the Rama writes that there is room for leniency, it is best to avoid doing this.





Shabbat Scenarios: Kotev and Mochek Part III

11 03 2011

Based on a Naaleh.com shiur by Rabbi Shimon Isaacson

Kotev and Mochek Demonstrations, Part 3

·Can you zip or unzip a sweatshirt with words on it on Shabbat? A problem arises with bringing together and breaking apart letters on the shirt much like a book with wording on the side. Therefore, it should be avoided if possible. One can be lenient in cases of necessity as per the Mishna Berura.

·Jigsaw puzzles that are meant to last may not be put together on Shabbat.  Wooden picture puzzles where pieces are fitted into corresponding holes are permitted. Picture puzzles with a background are ok for children. Puzzles that are meant to be taken apart and are affixed to a surface may pose a problem. However if the pieces are on a cardboard background, one can posit that it is the same as affixing a background to a background, which is permitted. Nevertheless adults should avoid this if possible.

·Writing with icing on a cake violates the Rabbinic prohibition of Kotev. It follows that if one cuts  through the letters, one is violating Mochek.  One may not cut through icing with script writing as the letters are attached.

·Are biscuits with lettering ok to eat on Shabbat? The Maharam MiRottenberg prohibited this. Most Acharonim permit it on the basis that the Maharam ruled stringently in a specific case of biscuits which were meant to be erased/consumed as a Kabbalistic segula (good sign) for wisdom.  Indeed the Dagel Merivava notes that it is permitted as one is eating the letters directly, there is no intention to erase, and the writing is temporary. Likewise, the Mishna Berura permits it as one is swallowing letters in the normal manner of eating.

·Are chocolate bars with imbedded words a problem? Here too, the letters are engraved in the bar and one breaks the words with one’s mouth and not with an instrument. The Chazon Ish, ruled stringently and prohibited it. The custom is to be lenient.

·A four- pack yogurt, which when attached form a complete picture, may not be broken apart on Shabbat.

·Food particles stuck to a bentcher may not be removed on Shabbat as one can come to pull letters off a page.

·Food packages with printed words or images should be opened before Shabbat. If one needs to tear them on Shabbat, one should be careful to tear where there are no letters or pictures or between the letters.

·Shoes with soles that leave a written imprint in the snow may be worn on Shabbat as the writing is unintentional.





Shabbat Scenarios: Kotev & Mochek Demonstrations

9 03 2011

Based on a Naaleh.com shiur by Rabbi Shimon Isaacson

Kotev and Mochek Demonstrations, Part 2

·Can you play Scrabble on Shabbat? The Chayei Adam’s view is that any game that requires keeping score and would normally involve writing should not be played on Shabbat.  The standard Scrabble games which is simply bringing together and distancing letters without affixing them to a permanent surface do not pose a problem with Kotev. However the deluxe editions, where the pieces are affixed to a groove, constitute writing according to Rav Moshe. He also ruled that the game was muktzah.

·Developing X-Ray films creates an image and is prohibited on Shabbat.

·Can you open and close a book that has writing on the side? The Rema rules leniently and permits it. He explains that one is not actually writing or erasing, one is simply bringing together and separating letters. Others add that it is similar to opening and closing a door or window in that it is part of the functionality of the book. However the Levush disagrees and argues that it may be a d’orayta prohibition. The Chazon Ish also rules stringently. Therefore one should avoid doing this if possible. If there is no alternative, one can follow the accepted lenient view held by the Mishne Berura. Random designs on the side of a book do not pose a problem.





Shabbat Scenarios: Sewing Science-Tofer/Koreah Part II

22 02 2011

Based on a Naaleh.com shiur by Rabbi Shimon Isaacson

Sewing Science: Tofer/Korei'a Demonstrations part 3In order to violate the Torah prohibition of Koreah, tearing, one must do so for the sake of Tofer, sewing. This law is derived from the times of the Mishkan. Moths would eat circular holes into the curtains. These holes were hard to mend. They needed to be torn into a kind of line to be sewn up. This is an example of destructive action that is transformed into constructive action. Most poskim agree that tearing for a constructive purpose, although not for the sake of Tofer, is still a Torah prohibition of Koreah.

·Tearing open the sewn-up pocket of a new garment is prohibited on Shabbat.

·According to the Mishna Berura, one may not slit a sealed envelope open on Shabbat.

·Ripping paper towels, garbage bags, or toilet paper from a roll involves not only Tofer, but also Mechatech, cutting to a specific size. The accepted custom is to use pre-cut bags and tissues on Shabbat. In a situation involving human dignity, rabbinic prohibitions are waived. Therefore, tearing toilet paper with a shinui (in an unusual manner), is permissible when there are no other options, as long as it is not torn on the perforated lines.

·Opening food packages in a destructive way (being careful not to tear any printed letters) is permitted on Shabbat.

·Opening the tab on a closed cereal box is both Mechatech and Koreah. The box should be opened at the side or from another area which does not involve ungluing or tearing the perforation. The best solution would be to open it before Shabbat.

·One may not separate the pages of a new book on Shabbat. This involves Koreah in addition to Makeh B’patish.